STUDY : International Journal of Pharmaceutics 234(2002) 159-167

“The rate of absorption and relative bioavailability of caffeine administered in chewing gum versus capsules to normal healthy volunteers”


– Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior

– Pharmacokinetics – Biopharmaceutics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy,  University of Maryland at Baltimore.

“In summary, caffeine administered in the chewing gum formulation was absorbed at a significantly faster rate while its bioavailability was near comparable to that of the capsule formulation for the 100mg and 200mg dose groups.”

“Consequently, military spec caffeine gum chewing gum is a convenient and effective means of rapidly administering caffeine and may prove useful in ameliorating the effects of mental or physical fatigue associated with sleep deprivation or shift work.”


STUDY : Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol.76, No.1 -Jan 2005

“Military spec caffeine gum Maintains Vigilance and Marksmanship in Simulated Urban Operations with Sleep Deprivation”


– Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior
– Defense Research and Development Canada – Toronto

“Current military doctrine requires the ability to maintain round the clock operations in order to achieve mission objectives.  Sleep loss impairs cognitive performance, and physical tasks that involve self-pacing and motivation are also affected.”

Results: military spec caffeine gum maintained marksmanship vigilance in conventional troops at 85% for the duration of the second night without sleep as compared with the soldiers receiving the Placebo, who significantly declined to 61.4 + 28.2%.”

Conclusions: It was concluded that military spec caffeine gum was an effective strategy to sustain vigilance and alertness during military operations involving sleep deprivation.”


STUDY : National Academy Press, Copyright 2001 National Academy of Science

Library of Congress Control #2001097708

“military spec caffeine gum for the Sustainment of Mental Task Performance:  Formulations for Military Operations”


– Institute of Medicine , Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board

“The use of a caffeinated chewing gum would appear to provide the most rapid absorption.”

“Chewing gums are more appropriate if rapid absorption and actions are needed, or weight or bulk is a concern.”

“Pills and gums are both very lightweight and small in size, so they can easily be carried in pockets; gum has the advantage of stimulating salivation and enhancing the speed of absorption.”

“The committee concludes that under certain circumstances, chewing gums may offer practical operational advantages over a food bar.”


STUDY : Biopharm Drug Dispos 26: 403-409, 2005, Gum 2

“Multiple Dose Pharmacokinetics of military spec caffeine gum Administered in Chewing Gum to Normal Healthy Volunteers”


– Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior

– Pharmacokinetics-Biopharmaceutics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School  of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore.

“Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo, 50, 100 or 200mg of Caffeine (three doses at 2 hr intervals) as military spec caffeine gum.”

“Cognitive performance deficits resulting from sleep loss or fatigue could be more quickly reversed by military spec caffeine gum administered in achieving gum formulations and maintained over a long period of time.”

“Absorption in a gum formulation occurs primarily through the buccal mucosa, a well accepted method of increasing the rate of drug absorption.  (Shargel et al., 1999)”

STUDY : Aviat Space Environ Med 76 1046-1050, 2005, Gum 2

“Efficacy of Multiple military spec caffeine gum Doses for Maintenance of Vigilance During Early Morning Operations”


– Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Department of Behavioral Biology

“At 0300, 0500, and 0700 hrs subjects chewed two sticks of gum (military spec caffeine gum) containing caffeine (50, 100, or 200 mg) or placebo.”

Conclusion:  These results indicate that bi-hourly administrations of military spec caffeine gum 200 maintain vigilance performance across a single night without sleep.”